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To examine how different groups of cells on the wings respond to changes in hormone levels, we measured the effect of hormone manipulations during the early pupal stage when the signaling from eyespot organizers and the response of the surrounding cells to the ring-determining morphogen are known to take place [ Iris amp; Ink Woman Moe Wrapeffect Floralprint Chiffon Dress Black Size 8 IRIS amp; INK Cheap Footlocker Finishline Sexy Sport 100% Original jR22Kc7
]. We manipulated the levels of active ecdysone in the hemolymph by injecting female pupae with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) [ Womens Elaine Flatform Chelsea Boots Ecco Discount Professional X1IBUmEEM
]-[ 24 ] at two developmental time points (Figure Lowest Price Sale Online Womens I1285sabella 20a Chelsea Boots Tommy Hilfiger Best For Sale Outlet Sneakernews Many Styles Discount Limited Edition 9Gm1JVYKDL
). For each temperature and injection time point, we then compared adult wings between control-injected and hormone-injected individuals. Figure Mens Schnürhalbschuh LaceUps Mustang Pick A Best Cheap Online ORE6n8v
shows the magnitude and statistical significance of the difference between control and hormone treatments for each of the target traits, injection time points, and rearing temperatures [see also Additional file 2 ].

Only traits that responded to changes in temperature during development responded to changes in hormone titers during early pupal life. That is, all traits for which differences between control-injected and hormone-injected individuals were significant (that is, any red circles in Figure Unisex Adults Ua Iso Priz LowTop Sneakers Vans Free Shipping Best Wholesale Cheap 100% Original Outlet Cheap Enjoy Discount High Quality NVO12MW3WW
) are traits for which the differences between temperatures for non-injected individuals were also significant (that is, reaction norms marked with stars in Figure Visit New Online Womens Calf Hair AnkleStrap Sandals Sergio Rossi Free Shipping Popular Free Shipping Manchester EioQi
). However, not all wing pattern traits that responded to temperature were affected by the hormone treatment. We found no significant effect of hormone manipulations for any of the traits in the dorsal wing surface (Figure 4 A). In contrast, many traits on the temperature-plastic ventral wing surfaces significantly increased in area in response to hormone injections. In some cases, lack of effect of our hormone injections on temperature-responsive traits can be explained by the fact that trait determination occurred before the hormone treatment. This is the case for the white eyespot centers (traits 4w, 6w in Figure Discounts Cheap Online Womens Regular Bungee Ballets 45 BROWN Lands End Outlet Discount Authentic Outlet Cheap Free Shipping For Cheap DCd40
) and for hindwing area (trait 10). The establishment of the eyespot organizing centers [ 35 ] and most of wing growth [ 36 ] are known to take place during larval life, before our hormonal injections were done. However, for other non-responsive traits, notably eyespot color rings, that is not the case (see below).

For all dorsal (traits 1 and 2) and some ventral thermally-responsive color pattern elements (traits 4 and 7) that did not respond to hormone treatment, it seems unlikely that our treatment missed the relevant windows of trait determination. Certainly for eyespot rings, we know that it is during early pupal development that signaling from eyespot centers establishes concentric rings of cells fated to produce different color pigments [ 30 ],[ 31 ]. The lack of response of those traits to our hormone manipulations could be due to lower sensitivities to hormone titers and due to them requiring hormone concentrations higher than those we produced artificially. This, too, at least alone, seems unlikely because our post-injection hormone levels at 19°C surpassed the control levels at 27°C, a temperature difference for which the traits did change (see below and Figure 1 B). The lack of response to hormonal manipulations suggests that thermal plasticity for these traits is not mediated (exclusively) by ecdysone.

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Interested in functions, hooks, classes, or methods? Check out the new WordPress Code Reference !


It helps people move around your site when you have a clean navigation menu in the sidebar and/or the footer. It helps people find the posts and articles you want them to find. There are a variety of methods for user friendly site navigation on your WordPress site.

Helping the user use your site means putting things where they can find them. Following the newsletter formats from the days of print, most website users are used to looking for intra-site links on the sides and bottom of a web page. As a designer, you can put them anywhere you want, but let's stick with the conventional placement for now. After all, we want our WordPress sites to be user-friendly, right?

In the WordPress Themes that come with your WordPress installation, all use a sidebar to hold most of the site's navigation links. Other Themes may use navigational aids in the header and footer. While these navigation links can be displayed in any Get Authentic Womens Cowboys New Caro Visit New For Sale Huge Surprise Cheap Online Cheap Sale Footlocker Pictures Brand New Unisex Cheap Price BxIJ7gAQ7
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associated with generating this list of navigation links are found in the default WordPress Themes's sidebar inside of a nested list . Let's look at each of these tags individually and then look how to expand the use of navigational aids on your WordPress site.

With the introduction of WordPress v1.5, Pages were available to help the administrator create individual Pages outside of the WordPress Loop such as Contact Us , About Us , and What's New . The template tags used to display the list of individual Pages is wp_list_pages() .

There are many ways of customizing the wp_list_pages() tag to be more useful to your users. A long list of Pages and sub-Pages can go on for quite a while, so you might want to only feature the most important Pages in your sidebar.

To exclude some Pages from your list, you can set the parameters for exclude . The following example excludes Pages with the Page-ID numbers of 17 and 38.

To learn more about customizing the wp_list_pages() template tag, visit the Template Tag page for wp_list_pages() .

The best template tag for creating a category list in your navigation menu is wp_list_categories() .

The default usage of the category list tag is:

Again, like the Womens Laddy Loafers Dorothy Perkins Sale Hot Sale Clearance Free Shipping Cheap Pre Order R4PGiI3
, you can use exclude to limit the categories you want listed, making it easier for the user to pick from only a few instead of twenty or thirty categories. The following example excludes category-IDs 10 and 15.

The practice of physical therapy requires the performance of many labor-intensive tasks related to the delivery of patient care. Such activities include lifting, bending, twisting, reaching, performing manual therapy, and maintaining awkward positions for a prolonged period of time. 4 Therefore, physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs) are susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries.

A number of researchers 3 , 5 12 have investigated occupational injuries within health care settings ( Tab. 1 ). The majority of these researchers have focused on nurses and nurses' aides. The results of these studies indicate that between 6% and 67% of health care workers studied in a variety of settings have experienced a work-related injury. 3 , 5 12

Table 1

Literature Review

Asterisk (*) indicates percentage includes only those respondents reporting an injury.

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Table 1

Literature Review

View Large

Molumphy et al 13 conducted one of the first studies concerned with the incidence of work-related low back pain (LBP) among PTs. They found that 29% of the 344 therapists surveyed reported work-related LBP. Their results indicated that the onset of work-related LBP occurred most frequently within the first 4 years of professional practice. The LBP was severe enough for 49% of those reporting pain to seek treatment from a physician and for 18% of the respondents to change work settings. Additionally, 41% of the respondents used sick leave, and 17% of the respondents decreased patient contact time.

Scholey and Hair 14 studied the incidence of back pain in the United Kingdom among PTs as compared with other occupations (control group). There were no differences between the 2 groups for lifetime prevalence, annual prevalence, annual incidence, and point prevalence for LBP.

Bork et al 4 investigated the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMD) during a 12-month period and factors that may be associated with these disorders among PTs. The 3 most common areas of injury reported by the 928 therapists who returned the survey instrument were the low back (45%), the wrist and hand (29.6%), and the upper back (28.7%). Lifting or transferring patients was identified as the factor most likely to be associated with the development of WMD. Treating a large number of patients in 1 day, working in awkward positions, working in the same position for long periods of time, and performing manual orthopedic techniques were also considered “major problems.” Based on the literature, it appears that, although PTs have knowledge of and clinical expertise in musculoskeletal injuries, this does not grant them immunity from developing WMD.

Our study was designed to add information and increase our understanding of occupational musculoskeletal injuries beyond that of the previously published studies regarding PTs. In particular, in contrast to the study by Bork et al, 4 we surveyed both PTs and PTAs and attempted to obtain information on responses to injury and how work habits or work settings were changed as a result of injury. The purpose of our study was to examine the causes, prevalence, and response to occupational musculoskeletal injuries reported by PTs and PTAs.

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